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“The Fluxus artists, in their attempt to critique and decommodify all art (beginning with music and performance, then moving on to film) were one of the first art (or anti-art) movements to reverse the relationship, demanding sparseness not only within…

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“The Fluxus artists, in their attempt to critique and decommodify all art (beginning with music and performance, then moving on to film) were one of the first art (or anti-art) movements to reverse the relationship, demanding sparseness not only within a given frame, but across multiple frames, undoing what Andrea Thoma has called ‘photography’s capacity to condense’ (2006: 86). Sparseness, through a sort of stretching of two-dimensional and three-dimensional material, thwarts the narrative that one can often read into photos and films, and disorients the viewer with regard to expected signifiers and visual resolution. Cited as a direct descendant of new media, primarily New York-based Fluxus artists created a large number of short movies in which very little (if anything) happened in terms of narrative, and movement was confined to the playing out of an obvious, visible process….Around the same time, Warhol was experimenting with ‘anti-film’ (as he called it), beginning with ‘Sleep’ (1963), a five-hour movie of one person, asleep (Figure 3). He followed this up with Empire (1964), an eight-hour epic of the Empire State Building from a single point of view (Figure 4). These movies were about the minimization of movement within a format that demanded action. They are photos that go for hours, movies that should exist in single moments. They employ movie trickery (a ‘running time’) to make you endure an image for more than just a few minutes. They take the requirement for prolonged attentiveness to extremes.” – Greg Shapley “After The Artefact”

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